top of page

Resultados de busca

8 items gevonden voor ""

  • Are Pronouns in Portuguese Confusing?

    PRONOMINAIS Oswald de Andrade Dê-me um cigarro Diz a gramática Do professor e do aluno E do mulato sabido Mas o bom negro e o bom branco Da Nação Brasileira Dizem todos os dias Deixa disso camarada Me dá um cigarro. (Mário de Andrade) Para entender o poema acima do brasileiro Oswald de Andrade, você precisa saber que um dos maiores símbolos da diferença entre o português brasileiro e o português de Portugal é o uso dos pronomes. Quando falamos, nós brasileiros usamos os pronomes em desacordo com a gramática da língua portuguesa. Por exemplo, o “te” de “eu te amo”, corresponde ao pronome “tu”, mas os brasileiros não usam o “tu” para falar. Então o correto gramaticalmente seria dizer “eu o amo”. Porque o ”o” corresponde ao “você” que é usado no lugar de “tu” no Brasil. Uau! Muito confuso?! Sim pode parecer em um primeiro momento. Mas o segredo é entender que o português brasileiro apresenta uma grande diferença entre a língua formal escrita e a língua informal falada ou escrita. Então, no poema acima, “Dê-me um cigarro” é a forma gramatical usada para escrever em contexto formal e o “Me dá um cigarro” é a forma falada ou escrita em contextos informais do cotidiano brasileiro. Abaixo nós temos dois quadros com alguns dos pronomes mais usados na língua formal e informal: FORMA GRAMATICAL ESCRITA FORMAL FORMA COLOQUIAL FALADA OU ESCRITA INFORMAL EXEMPLOS: LÍNGUA ESCRITA FORMAL 1.       Tu és o amor da minha vida. Eu te amo! 2.       Júlio é um bom rapaz. Ele é o meu primo. E eu o vi ontem no parque. Sua casa fica perto do lago. 3.       Nós temos uma casa. Nossa casa fica perto do lago. 4.       Eles têm três carros. Seus carros são novos e grandes. LÍNGUA INFORMAL FALADA E ESCRITA 1.       Oi Ana! Tudo bem com você? Eu te mandei uma mensagem ontem à noite. 2.        Júlio é um bom rapaz. Ele é o meu primo. E eu vi ele ontem no parque. A casa dele fica perto do lago. 3.       Nós reservamos uma mesa no restaurante. A mesa 13 é da gente. 4.       Tchau Sofia! Mande um beijo pra sua mãe!

  • 10 diferentes perfis no ambiente de trabalho no Brasil

    A Planta: aquele profissional que chega, bate o ponto, mas não faz muita coisa. Passa o dia enrolando, entrega o básico e, por algum motivo, não é demitido. O Nepobaby: tipo de profissional que trabalha na empresa, porque é parente de alguém ou teve um “qi” (“quem indica”) importante. Não necessariamente esse perfil significa que a pessoa não é competente, mas a sua presença pode incomodar os colegas. O Vilão: aquele perfil de profissional que está sempre criando intrigas. Enxerga o colega como um adversário(a) em potencial e quer tirá-lo(a) do caminho a qualquer custo. Articula seu trabalho sempre com ar manipulador, acha que tem poder e acaba se tornando o centro das atenções. Mas não se sustenta por um longo tempo. Mais cedo ou mais tarde acaba eliminado. O Herói: sofre todo o tipo de provação e sofrimento. Mas dá a volta por cima e em algum momento mostra a que veio. Entrega produtividade e resultados, além de ter perfil motivador para engajar a equipe. Se a empresa onde trabalha não o enxergar assim, vai entregar seus valores, energia e sua excelência profissional em outro lugar. O Sedutor: esse pode se dar bem na área de vendas. Ama os holofotes. Mas se utilizar o seu poder de sedução para dar em cima dos(as) colegas, além da demissão, pode acabar com um processo judicial no seu currículo. O Bobo da Corte: aquele profissional que adora fazer gracinhas. Bem humorado, diverte os colegas e é criativo. Normalmente é bem-quisto no ambiente de trabalho. Mas se não tiver bom senso pode perder o “timing” e ser demitido na primeira oportunidade. O Fofoqueiro: são aqueles que não seguram a língua na boca. Tenho certeza que você já pensou em alguém. Podem ser inofensivos, mas atenção com aqueles que elaboram a fofoca com ar de vilania, esses acabam provocando mal entendido no trabalho em equipe e acaba sendo demitido. O Gincanista: aquele que é conhecido como “pau pra toda obra”. É o profissional que faz acontecer. Como o próprio nome diz: gosta de gincana. Vai se desdobrar pra cumprir os desafios e entregar resultados. O Fiel Escudeiro: leal aos seus colegas, à chefia e à empresa. Mas tem extrema dificuldade quando tem que escolher um lado. O Puxa-Saco: Toda empresa tem um. Aquele perfil de profissional que bajula o chefe e não tem vergonha de fazer isso em público. Esse é um perfil que incomoda os colegas, mas se tem talento pra bajular e não tem competência para as funções, vai acabar “fora do jogo”.

  • List of series on Netflix to learn Brazilian Portuguese:

    Those of you who are learning Brazilian Portuguese already know how films and series are an excellent tool for learning a language. So here is a list of seven Brazilian series that can help you with your studies! Enjoi it! 1.       Cidades Invisíveis: Series about Brazilian folklore and environment. Romance and action series. Synopsis: After a family tragedy, a man discovers folkloric creatures living among humans and soon realizes that they are the answer to his mysterious past. 2.       Bom dia, Verônica: Action and dystopia series, it talks about serious themes in Brazilian society such as machismo, corruption and violence. Synopsis: A police officer investigates a sexual predator and ends up discovering a couple with a horrible secret and a sinister corruption scheme. 3.       Coisa Mais linda: The series talks about female emancipation and shows the beginning the culture of Rio’s society that exists today. Synopsis: a woman arrives in Rio in the 1950s to find her husband and discovers that she has been abandoned. Instead of suffering, she decides to stay in the city and open a bossa nova club. 4.       3%: Futuristic action and dystopia series. Synopsis: In a future where an elite lives in the comfort of Maralto, all 20-year-olds go through a selection process to live there. But only 3% will be approved. 5.       O Mecanismo. The series is inspired by the investigations of apolice operation called Lava Jato, Synopsis: Marco Ruffo, a Federal Police agent obsessed with the case he is investigating, finds himself immersed in one of the biggest embezzlement and money laundering investigations in the history of Brazil when he least expects it. 6.       Irmandade: Action series. Synopsis: An honest lawyer faces a moral dilemma after police officers force her to inform on her brother, who is in prison and leads a rising criminal faction. 7.       7 Prisioneiros: Series that talks about slave labor in current Brazil. Synopsis: A humble young man needs to escape the clutches of a human trafficker. Will he be able to stay true to his principles while fighting to survive?

  • The "Foot" in Brazilian Portuguese Expressions

    In Portuguese there are several expressions with that part of the body that connects us to the earth: the foot, in portuguese “pé”. Pé d’água, pé quente, pé de guerra, pé de fruta, pé de igualdade, pé atrás, andar a pé, meter o pé and so on... The expressions are diverse and many of them are not related with the foot acttualy. I separated some of them here for you. Let's start with a pé de árvore (tree feet). In this case pé is used to refer to a plant or fruit tree, and in general it comes followed by the fruit. For example: “O pé de manga é muito grande, mas o pé de tomate é pequeno.” And what is the origin of this expression? We do not know! Could we associate the shape of the foot with the vertical shape of the plant or tree? Yes, but it would be more appropriate to call the tree a mango leg (perna de manga). But I think whoever invented the expression liked feet more than legs. Who knows? There are those that use the foot in the literal sense, for example andar a pé which means walking as opposed to transporting yourself with vehicles such as a car or boat: “Ela vai à praia a pé”. And meter o pé means leaving, getting out: “Está tarde, preciso ir, vou meter o pé”. One of the meanings of the verb meter in portuguese is to put, to put on, to place. So when you leave a place, you put your foot on the ground to walk, then putting your foot on the ground is the same meter o pé. Two other expressions that refer to the position of the feet are estar em pé de igualdade and estar com o pé atrás. The first means you are on the same level of competition. They are foot to foot, or in other words, the runners are in the same position to start a race, for example: “Os dois atletas são fortes, eles estão em pé de igualdade”. And estar com o pé atrás is when you are suspecting something in a situation. In this case, it is possible to visualize the image of someone who, out of fear, stops facing what is in front of them, takes a step back: “Ele está com o pé atrás em relação aos amigos do trabalho”. In other words, he suspects his friend. There are those expressions associated with the climate such as pé d’água, which means very a storm. “Ontem caiu um pé d’água, mas hoje já está fazendo sol de novo”.  There is the pé quente (hot feet) which is when someone is lucky: “Ele traz sorte para o vendedor, toda vez que ele entra na loja, logo depois muitos clientes entram também, ele é pé quente”. There is also the pé de guerra (feet war), which is the situation when two people fight a lot: “Eles são um casal estranho, vivem em pé de guerra, mas não se separam”. And for last I left the one I like most, which is meter o pé na jaca. Jaca is a big fruit. And this expression means going beyond the limits. It can be used in many contexts. In general it is used in the context of parties where a person drinks a lot and goes overboard: “Ontem, na festa o chefe meteu o pé na jaca, bebeu muito, dançou muito e até subiu na mesa, foi divertido!”. So now you know some of the expressions with foot in Portuguese. Just be careful, não meta o pé na jaca (do not to put your foot in) starting using the expression indiscriminately. The advice I give is to first observe the contexts in which they are used and then start practicing. Now eu vou meter o pé  becouse it's time to go!

  • The Formation of Brazilian Portuguese

    We cannot say, with certainty, that there is a Brazilian language, the subject is controversial among experts. We can say that there is Brazilian Portuguese, a variation of European Portuguese that is only spoken in South America. We can also say that nowhere else in the world has the Portuguese language been influenced by so many different cultures as has happened here in Brazilian territory. Brazilian Portuguese is a soup, in which its main ingredient is European Portuguese, but the final flavor has a wide variety of elements. And how did this happen? This story begins in 1500, with the arrival of Portuguese. At first, the Jesuits learned Tupinambá, the most spoken language on the entire coast of Brazil at the time. And thus, they managed to maintain communication between the colonizers and the natives, also expanding their project of catechization and definitive conquest of the region. After learning the language of the original people, the Jesuits created a general language, a kind of mixture between 16th century Portuguese and the Tupi-Guarani language. The general language was the most spoken language at the bottom of the pyramid population of the Brazilian until 1757, when it was definitively banned and Portuguese was decreed the official language of the colony. According to historians, for almost three centuries it was with it that Brazilians communicated in villages, in commerce and even when teaching in schools. Around 1530, Portugal began kidnapping African people for forced labor in the American colony. They were people from different origins, nations and cultures, speakers of different languages who were forced to learn the language of the new territory in order to survive. Brazil was the country that most exploited the forced labor of Africans in the world, for more than three hundred years. And the country's enslaved population became superior to the free population. The languages of these people merged with Portuguese over the centuries. Schoolbooks in Brazil tend to limit the indigenous and African influence on Brazilian Portuguese to a few everyday words. But experts say this influence goes much further. As an example, we have the plural only in the first word of the sentence: “As criança brinca”. A way of speaking that is typical of more mixed-race communities. The correct form is “As crianças brincam”, but what seems like a grammar “error” is actually a process of “Africanization” of Portuguese. Studies show that many indigenous and African languages use the plural in the same way. These ethnic groups have historically been excluded from access to formal education in the country, so they have also not internalized many of the grammatical structures of the official language. As a result, the “Africanization” of the Portuguese spoken by them still continues today in various linguistic contexts. Between the 16th and 17th centuries, other European peoples were in Brazilian lands in an attempt to conquer the territory. The French founded Antarctica France in Rio de Janeiro and Equinoctial France in Maranhão. And the Dutch were in control of northeastern cities such as Salvador, Recife, Paraíba and Rio Grande do Norte for twenty years. Even though they were expelled by the Portuguese, they left signs of their passage through the country present in the culture of these places. Signs that are sometimes more visible in places, such as in architecture, sometimes more hidden in culture, such as influences on customs and accents. At the end of the 19th century, the Brazilian government ended the system of human slavery in Brazil. For fear of the same revolution happening here that happened in Haiti, the government created a “population whitening policy” and encouraged the immigration of Europeans and Asians to the country. The people who arrived here the most at that time were the Germans, the Italians, the Chinese and the Japanese. Assistance policies were created to welcome immigrant families. Brazil is the second place in the world with the most Japanese after Japan. German immigrants were mainly concentrated in the southern region and Italians in the southeast region. These people finished seasoning Brazilian Portuguese. They needed to learn the customs and language of the place, but they also contributed to its culture and consequently influenced the Portuguese that is spoken today in Brazil. Thus, Brazilian Portuguese is the result of interaction between several peoples over the centuries. Each one with their own color and in specific social circumstances, using European Portuguese as a communication tool between them. It was from this socio-historical dynamic that Brazilian Portuguese emerged. This linguistic soup with unique flavors, which, like everything else in the country, abounds in diversity and multiculturalism. Núbia Farias Bibliographical references: A Arte da Gramática da Língua mais usada na Costa do Brasil – José de Anchieta. Editor: Coimbra: Antonio de Mariz. Data do documento:      1595. Como falam os Brasileiros – Yonne Leite e Dinah Callou. Editora: Jorge Zahar, 2004. O Brasil dos Imigrantes – Lúcia Lipi Oliveira. Editora: Zahar, 2000. Os Índios Antes do Brasil – Calos Fausto. Editora: Jorge Zahar, 2000. Preconceito Linguístico – Marcos Bagno. Editora‏: ‎ Parábola Editorial, 2015. Raízes do Brasil – Sérgio Buarque de Holanda, Editora: Companhia das Letras, 1997.

  • After All, Who is Fulano?

    Anyone who is learning Brazilian Portuguese and practices the language by talking to Brazilians or has watched films and series has probably heard the name “Fulano”. Usually this name appears in the middle of a story someone is telling. And the Portuguese student probably wonders: But who is this guy? Do not fool yourself! Fulano is not a real name, it is a nickname, a codename used to refer to an undetermined person, or to refer to someone whose name for some specific reason we do not want or cannot reveal. For example: “Ele faz muita fofoca no trabalho, fala mal de Fulano e depois conversa com ele amigavelmente”, “Eu estava na rua e vi um Fulano correndo da polícia” In many countries, fictitious names are used to refer to unknown people. For example in the United States they usually say: “Jonh Doe”, in France they use “Madame Unetelle” and in Germany “Max and Erika Mustermann”. In Brazilian Portuguese it can be accompanied by two other names, also fictitious, which are Beltrano and Sicrano, always in this sequence. For example: “Todos estavam na reunião: Fulano, Beltrano e Sicrano.” Dictionaries say that the name Fulano comes from Arabic (Fulân) and in that language it had the meaning of such (demonstrative pronoun). The origin of the name Sicrano is not certain, some say it comes from Arabic and meant drunk, others say it comes from the Spanish language and meant a call like “ei”, “psiu” or “hey you” in English. And Beltrano comes from French and was a masculine name, Beltran. In Brazilian Portuguese, Fulano has variations such as Fulano de Tal, Fulaninho and Fulaninho de tal. These last two are generally used with a derogatory meaning. For example: “That little guy from the house across the street always leaves his dog’s feces on my sidewalk.” In general, these variations are used in informal contexts. But Fulano can also appear in formal contexts such as documents, used to represent a person whose real name is not known or is not relevant to the document in question. The important thing now is that you can now recognize the name Fulano when you hear it in a conversation and not get lost thinking you don't know the character in the story, because Fulano, Beltrano and Sicrano can be anyone! Os dicionários dizem que o nome Fulano vem do árabe (Fulân) e nesse idioma ele tinha o significado de tal (pronome demonstrativo). Não é certa a origem do nome Sicrano, alguns dizem que vem do árabe e significava bêbado, outros dizem que vem da língua espanhola e que significava um chamamento como “ei”, “psiu” ou “hey you” do inglês. E Beltrano vem do francês e era um nome masculino, o Beltran. No português brasileiro, Fulano tem variações como Fulano de Tal, Fulaninho e Fulaninho de Tal. Essas duas últimas são usadas, geralmente, com significado depreciativo. Por exemplo: “Aquele Fulaninho da casa da frente sempre deixa as fezes do cachorro dele na minha calçada.” Em geral essas variações são usadas em contextos informais. Mas o Fulano pode aparecer também em contextos formais como em documentos, utilizado para representar uma pessoa com o nome real não conhecido pelo leitor. O importante agora é que você já pode reconhecer o nome Fulano quando você escutar em uma conversa e não ficar perdido achando que não conhece o personagem da história, porque Fulano, Beltrano e Sicrano podem ser qualquer pessoa! Professora Núbia

  • BORA X  EMBORA

    Em português a palavra “embora” pode ter mais de um sentido. Pode ser uma conjunção que liga duas ideias opostas. Como no exemplo: “Embora os brasileiros trabalhem muito, eles não conseguem ter um bom salário”. Pode ter também o significado de partida: “Ela foi embora para a Bahia e não voltou mais”. Este segundo significado se aproxima do uso em inglês de “go away”. “Ela vai embora amanhã”, “She goes away tomorrow”. O que poucos brasileiros sabem é que, com esse significado de partida, a palavra embora vem da expressão “em boa hora”. Essa frase era muito usada no português antigo para significar "em um momento certo". Então quando a pessoa dizia: “vou em boa hora” ela queria dizer que estava saindo em uma hora conveniente. A expressão passou por um processo de transformação fonética, mudou para “embora” e foi perdendo seu sentido original. Atualmente vemos esse mesmo fenômeno fonético se repetindo. A expressão: “Vamos embora!” (que corresponde ao "Let's go" do inglês ou do “Vamonos” do espanhol e ainda do “Allons-y” do francês) passou a ter diversas variações de pronúncia como “Vão bora!”, “Bora”, “Bora lá”, “Vambora" e "Simbora". A mais comum é a expressão "Bora", que, há algumas décadas, era usada somente pelos jovens. Hoje ela está na boca de pessoas de todas as gerações, já aparece nos dicionários e é muito presente no marketing publicitário. Então bora lá aprender o português brasileiro para viajar ao Brasil e poder falar com esse povo que é um dos mais divertidos do planeta! Bora lá? Professora Núbia Farias

  • Five Movies to Better Understand Brazilian Culture

    Once a Japanese student of mine told me that every Brazilian movies seems a documentary. I was a little frustrated with what he said, but I had to agree that, actually the documentary aesthetic is present in a large majority of Brazilian cinematic fiction. It seems that, in Brazil, we live in such surreal situations that we need to see ourselves on screen in order to recognize our contradictions and be able to change them. In this article, I have selected five movies that can help Brazilian Portuguese students understand the country's culture. Come on? The first of them is “Desmundo” (2002), directed by Alain Fresnot. The film takes place around 1570, during the birth of Brazilian society, and tells the story of orphans who were sent from Portugal to Brazil and forced to marry the colonists (in general, rude men with no family). At that time there were practically no Portuguese women in the country and the women who were here to interact with local men generally were at a vulnerable circumstance. Either they were considered savages (indigenous women), or women without families and dowries (orphans), or soulless beings, simple sexual objects (African women). Desmundo reveals to us the original bases of a patriarchy that up today influence a sexist behavior very present in Brazilian society. Another curiosity is that the movie was filmed in old Portuguese and subtitled in modern Brazilian Portuguese. It's very interesting! The second movie is “Carlota Joaquina, Princess of Brazil” (1995), directed by Carla Camurati. The story takes place at the beginning of the 19th century, in Rio de Janeiro and the movie narrates the arrival of the royal family to Brazil, after Napoleon Bonaparte's invasion of Portugal. It is a historical satire that exposes the origins of concepts of class superiority that are still reflected in Brazilian culture. Furthermore, with this movie, we can understand how royalty's relations with the colony promoted acts of corruption that have become a habit still difficult to eliminate today. The third is O Auto da compadecida (2000), directed by Guel Arraes. The film is a dramatic comedy that takes place in the interior of Brazilian Northeast, the poorest region of the country. The story revolves around the adventures of two boys trying to survive the poverty. The film presents, in a fun way, archetypal characters from Brazilian social groups (the bourgeoisie, the church, politics, the military, the rebels and the poor) and shows the power relation tensions between them. With this film you will observe very common themes in Brazilian reality, such as social inequality, poverty, faith and abuse of power. In addition you will be able to understanding the cultural diversity between the different regions of the country. The fourth is Basic Sanitation, The Movie (2007), directed by Jorge Furtado. It is a comedy that tells the story of the residents of a small community in southern Brazil. They need to build a septic tank to solve a sewage problem. And the city administration claims it does not have the funds to resolve the issue, but it has money allocated for the production of a film. So the residents begin to independetly create any filme they can think of, just to get the money and build the septic tank. Basic sanitation, the film shows how the relationship between ordinary Brazilian citizens and public authorities is like. Problems such as excessive bureaucracy, contradictions among politicians, political alienation of citizens and the low education of the population are exposed in an ironic and entertaining way. The fifth and last is The seconde mather (2015), directed by Anna Muylaet. This drama film tells the story of a woman who moves from the Northeast to São Paulo to get out of poverty and starts working as a maid. Years later, she experiences culture shock with her daughter, who won't accept the exploitation at work that her mother is used to. The film reveals the great social transformations that took place in Brazil during the 2000s and the resistance of the middle class to sharing the same spaces with the lower class. Furthermore, it also shows how the legacy of slavery is still present in the daily habits of Brazilians. Of course, there are many other interesting films to help you understand Brazilian culture! But they are many, I will talk more about others in my future articles. See you them!

bottom of page